example 15/25/30mm figures in domes
These are examples. Every figure in in this site can be delivered in a dome!

Two soldiers in an acrylic dome with black, white or red brown marble base. On the base is a golden sheet with the regimental name of the soldiers or your personal message. Autographed by myself with date of painting.

Figure position can vary. The men can consist of shooting, loading, marching or offensive soldiers.If you have preferences, please let me know, otherwise I will select personaly.

 

   

15mm Austria: Infantry of the Line 1780

  • Description

2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

15mm Belgium: Infantry Grenadier Waterloo 1815

  • Description

2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

15mm England: Highland Infantry Waterloo 1815

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

A Scottish regiment is any regiment (or similar military unit) that at some time in its history has or had a name that referred to Scotland or some part, thereof, and adopted items of Scottish dress. These regiments were and are usually a product of the British Empire, either directly serving the United Kingdom, serving as colonial troops, or later as part of Commonwealth country military establishments. Their "Scottishness" is not necessarily due to recruitment in Scotland nor any proportion of members of Scottish ancestry. Traditionally, Scottish regiments cultivate a reputation of exceptional fierceness in combat and are often given romantic portrayals in popular media. Within Scotland, itself, regiments of the Scottish Lowlands did not adopt as strong a "Scottish" (specifically Highland Scottish) character until the late Victorian Era

Many of these regiments are also known as "Highland regiments" or "Highland Scottish/Scot/Scots regiments" due to adopting Highland Scottish apparel. Many extant Highland regiments that are not in the armed forces of the United Kingdom have formed formal honorary affiliations with Highland regiments therein

 

15mm England: Highland Infantry Waterloo 1815

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

A Scottish regiment is any regiment (or similar military unit) that at some time in its history has or had a name that referred to Scotland or some part, thereof, and adopted items of Scottish dress. These regiments were and are usually a product of the British Empire, either directly serving the United Kingdom, serving as colonial troops, or later as part of Commonwealth country military establishments. Their "Scottishness" is not necessarily due to recruitment in Scotland nor any proportion of members of Scottish ancestry. Traditionally, Scottish regiments cultivate a reputation of exceptional fierceness in combat and are often given romantic portrayals in popular media. Within Scotland, itself, regiments of the Scottish Lowlands did not adopt as strong a "Scottish" (specifically Highland Scottish) character until the late Victorian Era

Many of these regiments are also known as "Highland regiments" or "Highland Scottish/Scot/Scots regiments" due to adopting Highland Scottish apparel. Many extant Highland regiments that are not in the armed forces of the United Kingdom have formed formal honorary affiliations with Highland regiments therein

 

15mm England: 95th Rifles Waterloo 1815

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own) was a regiment of the British Army. The purpose of the regiment's formation was to work as skirmishers. The riflemen were trained to work in open order and be able to think for themselves. They were to operate in pairs and make best use of natural cover from which to harass the enemy with accurately aimed shots as opposed to releasing a mass volley, which was the orthodoxy of the day. The riflemen of the 95th were dressed in distinctive dark green uniforms, as opposed to the bright red coats of the British Line Infantry regiments. On top of this, the unit's operation was markedly different from the line infantry. Flogging was abolished as a means of enforcing military discipline (a very progressive move and unheard of for the times), they held regular shooting and sporting competitions, and were rewarded for their achievements. Officers would regularly dine with their men and in so doing would become familiar with each man in their respective companies, a practice also unheard of at the time.

The performance of the regiment can be demonstrated by the story of Rifleman Thomas Plunkett of the 1st Battalion, 95th Rifles. Plunkett, armed with a Baker rifle, allegedly shot the French General Colbert at a range of between 400 and 800 yards during the Peninsula War. Apparently, he then shot a second Frenchman who rode to the general's aid, proving that his was not just a lucky shot. By comparison, a standard issue Brown Bess musket could not be relied upon to hit a man-sized target at over 60 yards.

 

 

15mm England: King's German Legion Waterloo 1815

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

The King's German Legion (KGL) was a German military unit, but as such also an integral part of the British army. It was in existence from 1803 till 1816. It has the reputation of beeing the only German force to fight without interruption against the French during the Napoleonic occupation.

When Napoléon imposed the Convention of Artlenburg (Convention of the Elbe) on July 5, 1803 the Kurfürstentum Hannover (Electorate of Hanover) was disbanded and its army dissolved. Many former Hanoverian officers and soldiers fled the French occupation to Britain, as George, Elector of Hanover, was also King of the Unite Kingdom, as George III.

The same year, Major Colin Halkett and Colonel Johann Friedrich von der Decken were issued warrants to raise a corps of light infantry, to be named "The King's German Regiment". On December 19, 1803, Halkett's and von der Decken's levies were combined as a fundament of a corps of all arms to be formed and named the King's German Legion. Because the Legion was considered loyal it was the only foreign regiment stationed on the British mainland at the time.

The number of officers and rankers grew over time to around 14,000, but during the 13 years of its existence, about 28,000 men served in the Legion. The Legion saw active service as part of the British Army from 1805 until 1816, when its units were disbanded.

 

15mm France: Fusilier Swiss Regiment Waterloo 1815

  • Description

2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

15mm France: Imperial Guard Grenardiers of the Old Guard Waterloo 1815

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

Old Guard (Vieille Garde): This was the crème de la crème of Napoleon's army. The Old Guard was made up of the longest serving veterans (3-5 campaigns) and consisted of two regiments:

  • Grenadiers à Pied de la Garde Impériale: The Grenadiers of the Guard was the most senior regiment in La Grande Armée. During the 1807 campaign in Poland, the Grenadiers were given the nickname les grognards ("the grumblers") by Napoleon himself. They were the most experienced and brave infantrymen in the Guard, some veterans having served in over 20 campaigns. To join the Grenadiers, a recruit had to have been under the colours for at least 10 years, have received a citation for bravery, be literate and be over 178 cm tall. The Grenadiers à Pied did not see combat as often as the infantry of the Young or Middle guard, but when they did they performed admirably. In 1815, The Old Guard grenadiers were expanded to four regiments. The new regiments, the 2e, 3e and 4e Grenadiers were immediately classed as Old Guard, despite the fact that they were nowhere near the calibre of 1er Grenadiers. In fact, the army referred to them as Middle Guard. It was these regiments which were defeated by the British Guards at Waterloo. The 1er Grenadiers was engaged in fighting the Prussians at Placenoit. The Grenadiers à Pied wore a dark blue habit long (coat with long tails) with red turnbacks, epaulettes and white lapels. The Grenadiers most distinguishing feature was the tall bearskin hat, decorated with an engraved gold plate, a red plume and white cords.
  • Chasseurs à Pied de la Garde Impériale:The Chasseurs of the Guard were the second most senior regiment in La Grande Armée. The 1er Chasseurs were the sister formation to the 1er Grenadiers à Pied. They had the same entry criteria, however accepted men who were 172 cm and taller. The Chasseurs performed just as well as the Grenadiers in combat, seeing action in several crucial battles. Following Napoleon's return in 1815, the Chasseurs was expanded to four regiments also, with the 2e, 3e and 4e regiments being formed from recruits with only four years experience. These regiments, together with 'Middle Guard' regiments of Grenadiers à Pied, formed the assault of the Guard during the final phase of the battle of Waterloo. As with the 1er Grenadiers à Pied, the 1er Chasseurs à Pied was engaged at Placenoit. The Chasseurs à Pied wore a dark blue habit long (coat with long tails) with red turnbacks, red epaulettes fringed green and white lapels. On campaign, the Chasseurs often wore dark blue trousers. As with the Grenadiers, the Chasseurs most distinguishing feature was the tall bearskin, decorated with a red over green plume and white cords.

 

15mm France: Infantry of the line 1807

  • Description

2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

15mm France: Infantry of the Line Waterloo 1815

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

Infantry of the Line

The Infantry of the Line made up the majority of the Grande Armée. In 1803, Napoleon had reinstated the term Regiment, the revolutionary term demi-brigade (due to the fact there were two per brigade and it lacked the royal connotations) was now only used for provisional troops and depot units. At the time of the formation of the Grande Armée, the French Army had 89 Régiments de Ligne, a number which roughly corresponded with the number of départements in France. There would eventually be 156 Ligne regiments.

The Régiments de Ligne varied in size throughout the Napoleonic Wars, but the basic building block of the Infanterie of the Line was the battalion. A line infantry battalion was numbered at about 840 men; however, this was the battalion's 'full strength' and few units ever reached this. A more typical strength for a battalion would be 400-600 men. From 1800 to 1803 a line infantry battalion had eight fusilier companies, and one grenadier company. From 1804 to 1807 a line infantry battalion had seven fusilier companies, one grenadier company, and one voltigeur company. From 1808 to 1815 a line infantry battalion had four companies of fusiliers, one company of grenadiers, and one company of voltigeurs.

The Fusiliers made up the majority of a line infantry battalion, and may be considered the typical infantryman of the Grande Armée. The Fusilier was armed with a smoothbore, muzzle-loaded flintlock Charleville model 1777 musket and a bayonet. Fusilier training placed emphasis on speed of march and endurance, along with individually aimed fire at close range and close quarters combat. This differed greatly from the training given to the majority of European armies, which emphasised moving in rigid formations and firing massed volleys. Many of the early Napoleonic victories were due to the ability of the French armies to cover long distances with speed, and this ability was thanks to the training given to the infantry. From 1803, each battalion comprised eight Fusilier companies. Each company numbered around 120 men.

In 1805, one of the Fusilier companies was dissolved and reformed as a Voltigeur company. In 1808, Napoleon reorganised the Infantry battalion from nine to six companies. The new companies were to be larger, comprising 140 men, and four of these were to be made up of Fusiliers, one of Grenadiers, and one of Voltigeurs.

The line Fusilier wore a bicorne hat, until this was superseded by the shako in 1807. The uniform of a Fusilier consisted of white trousers, white surcoat and a dark blue coat (the habit long model until 1812, thereafter the habit veste) with white lapels, red collar and cuffs. Each Fusilier wore a coloured pom-pom on his hat. The colour of this pom-pom changed depending on the company the man belonged to. After the 1808 reorganisation, the First company was issued with a dark green pom-pom, the second with sky blue, the third with orange and the fourth with violet.

Grenadiers were the élite of the line infantry and the veteran shock troops of the Napoleonic infantry. Newly formed battalions did not have a Grenadier company; rather, Napoleon ordered that after two campaigns, several of the strongest, bravest and tallest fusiliers were to be promoted to the Grenadier company, so each line battalion which had seen more than two campaigns had one company of Grenadiers.

Regulations required that Grenadiers recruits were to be the tallest, most fearsome men in the regiments, and all were to have moustaches. To add to this, Grenadiers were initially equipped the a bonnet à poil or bearskin, as well as red epaulettes on their coat. After 1807 regulations stipulated that line Grenadiers were to replace their bearskin with a shako lined red with a red plume; however, many chose to retain their bearskins. In addition to the standard Charleville model 1777 and bayonet, Grenadiers were also equipped with a short sabre. This was to be used for close combat, but most often ended up serving as a tool to cut wood for campfires.

The Grenadier company would usually be situated on the right side of a formation, traditionally the place of greatest honour. During a campaign, Grenadier companies could be detached to form a Grenadier battalion or occasionally a regiment or brigade. These formations would then be used as a shock force or the vanguard for a larger formation.

Voltigeurs (literally, Vaulters or Leapers) were élite light infantry of the line regiments. In 1805, Napoleon ordered that the smallest, most agile men of the line battalions be chosen to form a Voltigeur company. These troops were to be second only to the Grenadiers in the battalion hierarchy. Their name comes from their original mission. Voltigeurs were to combat enemy cavalry by vaulting up onto the enemy's horses, a fanciful idea which failed to succeed in combat. Despite this, the Voltigeurs did perform a valuable task, skirmishing and providing scouts for each battalion, as well as providing an organic light infantry component for each line regiment. In Voltigeur training, emphasis was placed on marksmanship and quick movement.

Voltigeurs were equipped with large yellow and green or yellow and red plumes for their bicornes. After 1807, their shakos were lined with yellow and carried similar plumes. They also had yellow epaulettes lined green and a yellow collar on their coats.

Originally, Voltigeurs were to be equipped with the short dragoon musket, however in practice they were equipped with the Charleville model 1777 and bayonet. Like Grenadiers, Voltigeurs were equipped with a short sabre for close combat, and like Grenadiers this was rarely used. Voltigeur companies could be detached and formed into regiments or brigades to create a light infantry formation. After 1808, the Voltigeur company was situated on the left of the line when in combat. This was traditionally the second highest position of honour in the line of battle.

 

15mm France: Infantry of the Line, drummer and flag bearer

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

Infantry of the Line

The Infantry of the Line made up the majority of the Grande Armée. In 1803, Napoleon had reinstated the term Regiment, the revolutionary term demi-brigade (due to the fact there were two per brigade and it lacked the royal connotations) was now only used for provisional troops and depot units. At the time of the formation of the Grande Armée, the French Army had 89 Régiments de Ligne, a number which roughly corresponded with the number of départements in France. There would eventually be 156 Ligne regiments.

The Régiments de Ligne varied in size throughout the Napoleonic Wars, but the basic building block of the Infanterie of the Line was the battalion. A line infantry battalion was numbered at about 840 men; however, this was the battalion's 'full strength' and few units ever reached this. A more typical strength for a battalion would be 400-600 men. From 1800 to 1803 a line infantry battalion had eight fusilier companies, and one grenadier company. From 1804 to 1807 a line infantry battalion had seven fusilier companies, one grenadier company, and one voltigeur company. From 1808 to 1815 a line infantry battalion had four companies of fusiliers, one company of grenadiers, and one company of voltigeurs.

The Fusiliers made up the majority of a line infantry battalion, and may be considered the typical infantryman of the Grande Armée. The Fusilier was armed with a smoothbore, muzzle-loaded flintlock Charleville model 1777 musket and a bayonet. Fusilier training placed emphasis on speed of march and endurance, along with individually aimed fire at close range and close quarters combat. This differed greatly from the training given to the majority of European armies, which emphasised moving in rigid formations and firing massed volleys. Many of the early Napoleonic victories were due to the ability of the French armies to cover long distances with speed, and this ability was thanks to the training given to the infantry. From 1803, each battalion comprised eight Fusilier companies. Each company numbered around 120 men.

In 1805, one of the Fusilier companies was dissolved and reformed as a Voltigeur company. In 1808, Napoleon reorganised the Infantry battalion from nine to six companies. The new companies were to be larger, comprising 140 men, and four of these were to be made up of Fusiliers, one of Grenadiers, and one of Voltigeurs.

The line Fusilier wore a bicorne hat, until this was superseded by the shako in 1807. The uniform of a Fusilier consisted of white trousers, white surcoat and a dark blue coat (the habit long model until 1812, thereafter the habit veste) with white lapels, red collar and cuffs. Each Fusilier wore a coloured pom-pom on his hat. The colour of this pom-pom changed depending on the company the man belonged to. After the 1808 reorganisation, the First company was issued with a dark green pom-pom, the second with sky blue, the third with orange and the fourth with violet.

Grenadiers were the élite of the line infantry and the veteran shock troops of the Napoleonic infantry. Newly formed battalions did not have a Grenadier company; rather, Napoleon ordered that after two campaigns, several of the strongest, bravest and tallest fusiliers were to be promoted to the Grenadier company, so each line battalion which had seen more than two campaigns had one company of Grenadiers.

Regulations required that Grenadiers recruits were to be the tallest, most fearsome men in the regiments, and all were to have moustaches. To add to this, Grenadiers were initially equipped the a bonnet à poil or bearskin, as well as red epaulettes on their coat. After 1807 regulations stipulated that line Grenadiers were to replace their bearskin with a shako lined red with a red plume; however, many chose to retain their bearskins. In addition to the standard Charleville model 1777 and bayonet, Grenadiers were also equipped with a short sabre. This was to be used for close combat, but most often ended up serving as a tool to cut wood for campfires.

The Grenadier company would usually be situated on the right side of a formation, traditionally the place of greatest honour. During a campaign, Grenadier companies could be detached to form a Grenadier battalion or occasionally a regiment or brigade. These formations would then be used as a shock force or the vanguard for a larger formation.

Voltigeurs (literally, Vaulters or Leapers) were élite light infantry of the line regiments. In 1805, Napoleon ordered that the smallest, most agile men of the line battalions be chosen to form a Voltigeur company. These troops were to be second only to the Grenadiers in the battalion hierarchy. Their name comes from their original mission. Voltigeurs were to combat enemy cavalry by vaulting up onto the enemy's horses, a fanciful idea which failed to succeed in combat. Despite this, the Voltigeurs did perform a valuable task, skirmishing and providing scouts for each battalion, as well as providing an organic light infantry component for each line regiment. In Voltigeur training, emphasis was placed on marksmanship and quick movement.

Voltigeurs were equipped with large yellow and green or yellow and red plumes for their bicornes. After 1807, their shakos were lined with yellow and carried similar plumes. They also had yellow epaulettes lined green and a yellow collar on their coats.

Originally, Voltigeurs were to be equipped with the short dragoon musket, however in practice they were equipped with the Charleville model 1777 and bayonet. Like Grenadiers, Voltigeurs were equipped with a short sabre for close combat, and like Grenadiers this was rarely used. Voltigeur companies could be detached and formed into regiments or brigades to create a light infantry formation. After 1808, the Voltigeur company was situated on the left of the line when in combat. This was traditionally the second highest position of honour in the line of battle.

 

 

15mm France: Sapper 1815 (left,helmet) Sapper 1802

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

15mm Nassau: 2e Regiment of the line Waterloo 1815

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

Nassau was a German state within the Holy Roman Empire and later in the German Confederation. Its ruling dynasty, now extinct in male line, has been the House of Nassau.

Nassau, originally a county, emerged on the lower Lahn river in what is today Rhineland-Palatinate. The town of Nassau was founded in 915. The castle of Nassau was built in 1125, and since 1160 the county was named after the town where the castle was located. In 1255 Nassau was divided for the first time. During the next centuries several states named Nassau emerged. One of those counties was Nassau-Dillenburg, from where the House of Orange-Nassau originated. Another was Nassau-Weilburg, whose reigning house now reigns in Luxembourg.

Through the extinction of most lines, Nassau became a united duchy again in 1806. In 1866 it was annexed by Prussia and incorporated into the Province of Hesse-Nassau. Today, all legitimate Houses of Nassau are extinct in their original male line.

 

 

15mm Netherlands: Hunter Regiment Waterloo 1815

  • Description

2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

 

15mm Netherlands: Infantry of the Line Waterloo 1815

  • Description

2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

 

15mm Poland: Infantry of the line 1812

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

 

 

The Polish legions

The Polish troops in the service of France in Italy or in Germany from 1797 to 1801, the Italian legion, or the legion of the Danube, did not, as one often hears it said, give birth to the famous legion of the Vistula. Renamed the foreign demi-brigades, then the hundred thirteenth and hundred fourteenth demi-brigades, they were forced to embark for San Domingo and essentially destroyed by local fevers. Only a few companies which in 1806 were part of the army of Naples under Gouvion Saint-Cyr were still in Westfalia in 1807 for the initial formation of the legion of the Vistula.

The Grand Duchy of Warsaw

After the entry into Poland at the end of 1806 Napoleon charged Dombrowski with putting on foot a Polish army. On January 10, 1807, it already included

  • eight infantry regiments (or at least their first battalion)
  • two regiments of mounted chasseurs
  • one artillery battery on foot

There were also some squadrons of mounted volunteers and the legion of the north, formed of Austrian prisoners or Prussians of Polish origin.

Organization after mid 1807: three divisions each including four infantry regiments, two cavalry regiments (one mounted chasseurs and one lancers) and an artillery battalion of three companies. The infantry regiments had four squadrons, about one hundred eighty men apiece.

The campaign of 1809

To begin with, it must be noted that from the beginning of the campaign in Spain and except for the legion of the Vistula, three infantry regiments of the grand duchy (fourth, seventh, and ninth) each sent two battalions there. These troops remained in Spain up to the end of 1811.

In 1809 the Polish army under Poniatowski (less the troops in Spain and two battalions from each of the eighth, tenth, and eleventh infantry left in garrison in Prussia) fought the Austrian VII Corps of Archduke Ferdinand. The latter took Warsaw, but Poniatowski invaded Galicia (a Polish province of Austria), where he recruited six infantry regiments and ten cavalry (seven of lancers, two hussars, and one of two squadrons of cuirassiers) known as the Franco-Galician army.

At the end of 1809 these Franco-Galician troops were incorporated into the army of the grand duchy; the infantry took the numbers thirteen to seventeen the fourth Galician is below), the cavalry the numbers seven to sixteen (the Polish cavalry regiments are numbered sequentially and not by arms; thus the hussars had numbers ten nd thirteen and the cuirassiers fourteen.

In Russia in 1812

The Polish soldiers essentially formed the V Corps under Poniatowski, with

  • sixteenth division-- Zayonschek
  • seventeenth division-- Dombrowski
  • eighteenth division-- Kamienicki

Each division had three or four infantry regiments (with three or sometimes four battalions) and one or two cavalry regiments.

Moreover, Polish troops were found

  • in the twenty eighth division (Girard) of the IX Corps (fourth, seventh and ninth infantry, returned from Spain)
  • the fifteenth cavalry brigade in the first division of light cavalry (Bruyere) of the first cavalry corps: sixth and eighth lancers, second Prussian hussars (General Niemojewski)
  • the fourth light cavalry division (General Rozniecki) in the fourth cavalry corps: second, seventh, eleventh, third, fifteenth and sixteenth lancers (three squadrons each)
  • the second brigade of the seventh heavy cavalry division of the same corps: fourteenth cuirassiers (two squadrons) with two regiments of Westfalian cuirassiers, General Lepel
  • the tenth hussars were in the sixteenth brigade (Subervie) of the second division of light cavalry in the second cavalry corps - finally, the fifth, tenth, and eleventh infantry formed the Radziwill brigade in Macdonald's X Corps.

The first act of the campaign would be the liberation of Lithuania, a Polish province, which made it possible to raise there five infantry regiments ( eighteen to twenty two) and four of lancers (seventeen to twenty)

In Germany in 1813

The grand duchy was invaded by the Russians at the beginning of 1813. It was after Cracow, the after Saxony that Poniatowski reorganized the Polish army. The Polish men became the VIII Corps, including

  • twenty sixth infantry division (Kamienicki); first. eighth, fifteenth, and sixteenth
  • twenty seventh infantry division (Krasinski; second, twelfth, and fourteenth
  • cavalry brigade (Krukowiecki); second lancers, fourth chasseurs

The infantry regiments had only two battalions, the cavalry regiments three or even just two squadrons.

As for the cavalry, it became the fourth cavalry corps of the reserve under Kellermann:

  • advance guard (Uminski); fourteenth cuirassiers (Polish cossacks)
  • seventh light cavalry division (Sokolniki); eighth and sixteenth lancers, thirteenth hussars
  • eighth light cavalry division (Sulkowski); third and sixth lancers, first mounted chasseurs.

Other regiments or isolated battalions made up part of the garrisons of strongholds, notably at Wittenberg the regiment of the Vistula (regrouping the remains of the legion) and the fourth Polish regiment, formed from the debris of the fourth, seventh, and ninth.

The grand duchy would be definitely erased from the map at the end of 1813, and Poniatowski drowned at Leipzig. Some Polish soldiers fought with their habitual talent in France in 1814, and during the Hundred Days they formed the third foreign regiment.

 

15mm Prussia: infantry of the line

  • Description

2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

15mm Prussia: Private, Ist Pommeranian Landwehr.

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2 soldiers, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

 

 Prussia: Private, Ist Pommeranian Landwehr. Officer, Ist Elbe Landwehr

 

When first mobilised, the militia or Landwehr of the Prussian Army were without doubt the most wretchedly ­equipped body in Europe, often dressed in rags, with no shoes, and poor weapons. By 1815, however, almost all the deficiencies had been made up, and the Landwehr infantry was as weIl clothed and armed as many of the regular corps.

 

The head-dress was the cloth 'Schir­mütze', 'of dark blue or black, with piping and bands of the facing colour, with the white 'Landwehr cross' and the black and white Prussian cockade on the front. The caps on occasion had black waterproof covers. The Litewka varied in length from thigh to knee length, was of dark blue or black ,blue being by far the most common  with coloured facings.

 

The shoulder-straps of the Litewka of ten indicated the number of the regiment within each province, as in the regular infantry, viz. I st Regiment, white; 2nd, scarlet; 3rd, yellow; 4th, light blue. By this method (which was not universal), for example, the Ist Silesian Landwehr had yellow facings (pro­vincial colour) and white shoulder straps (seniority colour). Although officers could wear the Litewka, many wore the standard infantry Kollet with regimental facings. By 1815  many regi­ments had their number embroidered on their shoulder-straps. Leg wear con­sisted of loose white, grey or some­times blue trousers, or white or grey breeches worn with black gaiters. Offi­cers' rank was indicated in the usual way, but N.C.O.s had thin white braids around their collars and cuffs. Most N.C.O.s and drummers carried short sabres; drummers had red and white 'swallow's nest' wings. Equipment varied from the standard infantry pat­tern to just one haversack or cartridge pouch, or a rolled blanket over one shoulder. Some still carried the large axes with which the early Landwehr regiments had been armed. Bayonet­-scabbards were never carried, those Landwehr corps possessing bayonets keeping them permanently fixed.

 

 

 

 


15mm United States: Private atacking with bajonet WW1 1914-1918

  • Description

 

1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

25mm France: Eugène Rose de Beauharnais 1781 - 1824

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Prince Français, Prince of Venice, Viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy, Hereditary Grand Duke of Frankfurt, 1st Herzog von Leuchtenberg and 1st Fürst von Eichstätt ad personam (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of the future French emperor Napoleon's first wife, Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais.

He was born in Paris, France and became the stepson and adopted child (but not the heir to the imperial throne) of Napoleon. His natural father was executed during the revolutionary Reign of Terror. He commanded the Army of Italy and was viceroy of Italy under his stepfather.

Historians have looked upon him as one of the abler of Napoleon's relatives.

 

Eugène's first campaign was in the Vendée, where he fought at Quiberon. However, within a year his mother Joséphine had arranged his return to Paris. In the Italian campaigns of 1796-1797, Eugène served as aide-de-camp to his step-father, whom he also accompanied to Egypt. In Egypt, Eugène was wounded during the Siege of Acre). He returned to France in the autumn of 1799 and helped bring about the reconciliation which then took place between Bonaparte and his mother. When Napoleon became First Consul, Eugène became a captain in the Chasseurs à Cheval of the Consular Guard and with his squadron he took part in the Battle of Marengo.

During the War of the Fifth Coalition, Eugène was put in command of the Army of Italy, with General Étienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald as his military advisor. In April 1809 he fought and lost the Battle of Sacile against the Austrian army of the Archduke John, but Eugène's troops decisively won the rematch at the Battle of Raab that June. After the Battle of Aspern-Essling, Napoleon recalled the Army of Italy and after joining the main army, on the island of Lobau in the Danube, Eugène took part in the Battle of Wagram.

During the Russian campaign, Eugène again commanded the Army of Italy (IV Corps) with which he fought in the Battle of Borodino and the Battle of Maloyaroslavets. After Napoleon and then Joachim Murat had left the retreating army, Eugène took command of the remnants and led it back to Germany in 1813.

During the campaign of 1813, Eugène fought in the Battle of Lützen. Napoleon then sent him back to Italy, where he organised the defence against the Austrians, holding out until the abdication in 1814. After the fall of Napoleon in 1814, Eugène retired to Munich and at the behest of his father-in-law Maximilian I of Bavaria, did not get involved with Napoleon and France again.

Status and titles

Eugène de Beauharnais
Eugène de Beauharnais

In 1804 he was made an official member of the imperial family as His Imperial Highness, French Prince (Prince français) Eugène de Beauharnais. By a statute of June 5, 1805, the Emperor added Viceroy of Italy to his titles.

Prince Eugène was adopted by Napoleon on 12 January, 1806; while excluded from the French empire's succession, he was given presumptive rights for him and his descendants in the male line to the throne of Italy in the absence of a second son of Napoleon on February 16, 1806, and hence on December 20, 1807 given the title of Prince de Venise ('Prince of Venice'), which had been instituted by article 9 of the decree of March 30, 1806 (when the former Austrian province of Venice was united to Bonaparte's kingdom of Italy) for the Heir Presumptive to Napoleon in Italy.

His stepfather also made him heir to the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt in 1810 and hence he technically succeeded as Grand Duke to Archbishop Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg, the Prince-Primate of the Confederation of the Rhine, upon the latter's abdication in 1813. This position, however, was purely theoretical, as Dalberg's abdication was due to his Grand Duchy's imminent conquest by the Allied armies.

A further imperial sinecure was archichancelier d'état de l'empire de France 'Archchancellor of the empire of France'.

Family

In 1806 Eugène had married Princess Augusta Amalia Ludovika Georgia of Bavaria (1788-1851), daughter of Maximilian I of Bavaria, and his royal father-in-law made him Duke of Leuchtenberg and gave him the administration of the Principality of Eichstätt on 14 November 1817.

Eugène's and Augusta's children were:

  1. Princess Josephine of Leuchtenberg (1807-1876) became the Queen Consort to King Oscar I of Sweden, himself the son of Napoleon's old love, Desirée Clary.
  2. Princess Eugénie Hortense Auguste de Beauharnais (1808-1847). Married Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.
  3. Prince Auguste Charles Eugène Napoléon de Beauharnais, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg, (1810 - 1835) married Queen Mary II of Portugal. There was no issue from this marriage
  4. Princess Amélie Auguste Eugénie Napoléone de Beauharnais, (July 31, 1812 - January 26, 1873) was the second wife of Peter I of Brazil (father of Mary II of Portugal) and became Empress of Brazil
  5. Princess Theodelinde Louise Eugénie Auguste Napoléone de Beauharnais (1814-1857). Married Wilhelm, 1st Duke of Urach.
  6. Princess Carolina Clotilde de Beauharnais (1816)
  7. Prince Maximilian Josèphe Eugène Auguste Napoléon de Beauharnais (1817-1852), married Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaievna of Russia, eldest daughter of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, and received the title of "Prince Romanovsky", addressed as "His Imperial Highness", in 1852.

Eugène de Beauharnais died on February 21, 1824 in Munich.

25mm France: General of Cuirassiers 1815

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

25mm France: Jean-Baptiste Bessières 1768 - 1813

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

Bessières was born in Prayssac near Cahors in southern France. He served for a short time in the "Constitutional Guard" of Louis XVI and as a non-commissioned officer took part in the war against Spain.

In the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees and in the Army of the Moselle he repeatedly distinguished himself for valour, and in 1796, as captain, he served in Napoleon Bonaparte's Italian campaign. At Rovereto his conduct brought him to his chief's notice, and after the Battle of Rivoli he was sent to France to deliver the captured colours to the Directory. Hastening back to the front, he accompanied Napoleon in the invasion of Styria in command of the "Guides," who formed the nucleus of the later Consular - and Imperial Guards.

As chef de brigade he next served in the Egyptian expedition, and won further distinction at Acre and Aboukir.

Returning to Europe with Napoleon, he was present at Marengo (1800) as second-in-command of the Consular Guard, and led a brilliant and successful cavalry charge at the close of the day, though its effect on the battle was not as decisive as Napoleon pretended.

Promoted general of division in 1802 and marshal of France in 1804, he made the most famous campaigns of the Grande Armée as colonel-general of the Guard Cavalry (1805, 1806 and 1807).

In 1805 he had received the Grand Eagle of the Legion of Honour, and in 1809 was created duke of Istria, or rather duc d'Istrie, for it was a duché grand-fief -a rare, nominal but hereditary honor (extinguished in 1856) in Napoleon's own kingdom of Italy.

With the outbreak of the Peninsular War, Marshal Bessières had his first opportunity of an independent command, and his crushing victory over the Spaniards in the Battle of Medina del Rio Seco (1808) justified Napoleon's choice. When disaster in other parts of the theatre of war called Napoleon himself to the Peninsula, Bessiêres continued to give the emperor the very greatest assistance in his campaign.

In 1809 he was again with the Grande Armée in the Danube valley. At Essling his repeated and desperate charges checked the Austrians in the full tide of their success. At the Battle of Wagram he had a horse killed under him. Replacing Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte in the command of the Army of the North, a little later in the same year, the newly-created duke of Istria successfully opposed the British Walchere expedition, and in 1811 he was back again, in a still more important command, in Spain. As André Masséa s' second-in-command he was present at the battle of Fuentes d'Onoro, but Napoleon never detached him for very long, and in 1812 he commanded the Guard Cavalry at the Battle of Borodino and in the retreat from Moscow. Wherever engaged he won further distinction, and at the beginning of the 1813 campaign he was appointed to the command of the whole of Napoleon's cavalry.

Jean-Baptiste Bessières, Marshal of France
Jean-Baptiste Bessières, Marshal of France

Three days after the opening of the campaign, while reconnoitering the defile of Poserna-Rippach, Bessières was killed by a cannon ball which ricocheted off a wall and hit him in the hand. He died from shock and blood loss. Napoleon, who deeply felt the loss of one of his truest friends and ablest commanders, protected his children, and his eldest son was made a member of the Chamber of Peers by Louis XVIII.

As a commander, especially of cavalry, Bessières left a reputation excelled by very few of Napoleon's marshals, and his dauntless courage and cool judgment made him a safe leader in independent command. He was personally beloved to an extraordinary extent amongst his soldiers, and (unlike most of the French generals of the time) amongst his opponents. It is said that masses were performed for his soul by the priests of insurgent Spain, and the king of Saxony raised a monument to his memory.

25mm France: Joachim-Napoléon Murat 1767 - 1815

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

 

Joachim-Napoléon Murat, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, King of Naples and Sicily, 1st Prince Murat (Highness) (born Joachim Murat) (Italian: Gioacchino Napoleone Murat) (March 25, 1767 – October 13, 1815), Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, Marshal of France, was King of Naples and Sicily from 1808 to 1815. He received his titles in part by being the brother-in-law of Napoleon Bonaparte, through marriage to Napoleon's youngest sister, Caroline Bonaparte.

 

Joachim Murat was born March 25, 1767, in La Bastide-Fortunière, France, later renamed La Bastide-Murat, to Pierre Murat-Jordy (1721 – 27 July 1799), an innkeeper, and his wife Jeanne Loubières (La Bastide Fortunière, 1722 – La Bastide Fortunière, 11 March 1806), daughter of Pierre Loubières and wife Jeanne Viellescazes.

Murat enlisted in the cavalry at the age of 20. In 1791, he joined the King's Constitutional Guard, but left it soon for the regular army. In 1792 he became an officer. He was a staunch supporter of the notorious revolutionary Jacobin Jean-Paul Marat, and thus believed in a philosophy championing a strong centralized government in the form of a republic. In the war-torn, troubled times in the autumn of 175, three years after the French King was deposed, royalist and counter-revolutionaries organized an armed uprising. On October 3, Général Napoleon Bonaparte—at the time a relative unknown, was in the right place at the right time (he was stationed in Paris), for he was named commander of the three-year old French National Convention's defending forces. Napoleon tasked Captain Murat with the gathering of some artillery from a remote suburb outside the control of the government's forces. This difficult task, completed barely in time, was a contribution that became a historical turning point.

The ruthless use of these cannon on October 4 allowed Napoleon to save the members of the National Convention who were the target of the armed and organized mob. This constitutional convention, after an overly long period of emergency rule, was finally striving to establish a more stable and permanent government in the very uncertain period after the Reign of Terror. This desperate effort led to Napoleon's political rise (as a Barras supporter) from a little known Brigadier (General) of Artillery.

Murat managed to take the cannons of the Camp des Sablons and almost miraculously transport them 'in time' to the heart of Paris while avoiding the rioters, thus ensuring the success of the repression and the transition to power of the Directory. Barras became the most powerful of the directors as a result of his control of the military, with Napoleon as his iron-fisted advisor backed up by officers like Murat. For this success Joachim Murat was made chef de brigade (colonel) and thereafter remained one of Napoleon's best officers.

In 1796 with the situation in the capital and government apparently stabilized and the war going poorly (See also: French Revolutionary Wars), Napoleon lobbied to join the armies attempting to secure the revolution against the invading monarchist forces. Murat then went with Bonaparte to northern Italy, initially as his aide-de-camp, and was later named commander of the cavalry during the many campaigns against the Austrians and their allies. These forces were waging war on France and seeking to restore a Monarchy in Revolutionary France. His valour and his daring cavalry charges later earned him the rank of général in these important campaigns, the battles of which became famous as Napoleon constantly used speed of maneuver to fend off and eventually defeat individually superior opposing armies closing in on the French forces from several directions. Thus, Murat's skills in no small part helped establish Napoleon's legendary fame as a general's general, and enhance his popularity with the French people.

Of the three field armies staving off the Monarchists, Napoleon's worst-equipped and worst-supplied forces alone managed to remain undefeated during the 1796-1798 time frame. When he finally mounted an offensive against the last continental opponent, Austria, from the south, the latter sued for peace, leaving only Britain to contest the revolutionary ideas of the French Republic.

Murat commanded the cavalry of the French Egyptian expedition of 1798, again under Napoleon. The expedition's strategic goal was to threaten Britain's rich holdings in India. (Some had been taken from France during the Seven Years' War). However, the overall effort ended prematurely due to lack of logistical support with the defeat of the French fleet due to British sea power (See: Battle of the Nile). After the sea battle, Napoleon led his troops on land toward Europe (via Palestine and thence Ottoman Turkey), but was recalled by the Directory (at least in part) as it feared an invasion by Britain. Abbé Sieyès also saw Napoleon as an ally against a resurgent Jacobin movement, and so the expeditionary army was turned over to a subordinate.

The remaining non-military expedition staff officers, including Murat, and Napoleon returned to France, fleeing and somehow eluding various British fleets in five frigates. A short while later, Murat played an important, even pivotal, role in Bonaparte's 'coup within a coup' of 18 Brumaire (9 November) 1799 when Napoleon first assumed national power. Along with two others (including Director Abbé Sieyès), Napoleon set aside the five-man directory government, establishing the three-man French Consulate government.

Murat married Caroline Bonaparte civilly on January 20, 1800 at Mortefontaine (Plailly?) and religiously on January 4, 1802 in Paris, thus becoming a son-in-law of Letizia Ramolino as well as brother-in-law to Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon I of France, Lucien Bonaparte, Elisa Bonaparte, Louis Bonaparte, Pauline Bonaparte and Jérôme Bonaparte.

His brother-in-law Napoleon made him a Marshal of France on May 18, 1804. Napoleon also granted him the title of "First Horseman of Europe". He was created Prince of the Empire in 1805, appointed Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves on March 15, 1806 and held this title till August 1, 1808. He was named King of Naples and Sicily on August 1, 1808.

Murat was equally useful in Napoleon's invasion of Russia (1812), and in the Battle of Leipzig (1813). However, after France's defeat at Leipzig, Murat reached an agreement with the Austrian Empire in order to save his own throne.

During the Hundred Days, he realized that the European Powers, meeting as the Congress of Vienna, had the intention to remove him and give back the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily to its pre-Napoleonic rulers. Murat deserted his new allies, and, after issuing a proclamation to the Italian patriots in Rimini, moved north to fight against the Austrians in the Neapolitan War to strengthen his rule in Italy by military means. He was defeated by Frederick Bianchi, a general of Francis I of Austria, in the Battle of Tolentino (May 2 - May 3, 1815).

Marshal Murat's grave in Père Lachaise Cemetery.
Marshal Murat's grave in Père Lachaise Cemetery.

He fled to Corsica after Napoleon's fall. During an attempt to regain Naples through an insurrection in Calabria, he was arrested by the forces of his rival, Ferdinand IV of Naples, and was eventually executed by firing squad at the Castello di Pizzo, Calabria.

"When the fatal moment arrived, Murat walked with a firm step to the place of execution, as calm, as unmoved, as if he had been going to an ordinary review. He would not accept a chair, nor suffer his eyes to be bound. "I have braved death (said he) too often to fear it." He stood upright, proudly and undauntedly, with his countenance towards the soldiers; and when all was ready, he kissed a cornelian on which the head of his wife was engraved, and gave the word — thus, "Save my face — aim for the chest — fire!""

Murat is buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery.

25mm France: Marshal in full dress

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

25mm France:Napoleon Bonaparte 1769-1821

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Prince Français, Prince of Venice, Viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy, Hereditary Grand Duke of Frankfurt, 1st Herzog von Leuchtenberg and 1st Fürst von Eichstätt ad personam (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of the future French emperor Napoleon's first wife, Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais.

He was born in Paris, France and became the stepson and adopted child (but not the heir to the imperial throne) of Napoleon. His natural father was executed during the revolutionary Reign of Terror. He commanded the Army of Italy and was viceroy of Italy under his stepfather.

Historians have looked upon him as one of the abler of Napoleon's relatives.

 

Eugène's first campaign was in the Vendée, where he fought at Quiberon. However, within a year his mother Joséphine had arranged his return to Paris. In the Italian campaigns of 1796-1797, Eugène served as aide-de-camp to his step-father, whom he also accompanied to Egypt. In Egypt, Eugène was wounded during the Siege of Acre). He returned to France in the autumn of 1799 and helped bring about the reconciliation which then took place between Bonaparte and his mother. When Napoleon became First Consul, Eugène became a captain in the Chasseurs à Cheval of the Consular Guard and with his squadron he took part in the Battle of Marengo.

During the War of the Fifth Coalition, Eugène was put in command of the Army of Italy, with General Étienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald as his military advisor. In April 1809 he fought and lost the Battle of Sacile against the Austrian army of the Archduke John, but Eugène's troops decisively won the rematch at the Battle of Raab that June. After the Battle of Aspern-Essling, Napoleon recalled the Army of Italy and after joining the main army, on the island of Lobau in the Danube, Eugène took part in the Battle of Wagram.

During the Russian campaign, Eugène again commanded the Army of Italy (IV Corps) with which he fought in the Battle of Borodino and the Battle of Maloyaroslavets. After Napoleon and then Joachim Murat had left the retreating army, Eugène took command of the remnants and led it back to Germany in 1813.

During the campaign of 1813, Eugène fought in the Battle of Lützen. Napoleon then sent him back to Italy, where he organised the defence against the Austrians, holding out until the abdication in 1814. After the fall of Napoleon in 1814, Eugène retired to Munich and at the behest of his father-in-law Maximilian I of Bavaria, did not get involved with Napoleon and France again.

Status and titles

Eugène de Beauharnais
Eugène de Beauharnais

In 1804 he was made an official member of the imperial family as His Imperial Highness, French Prince (Prince français) Eugène de Beauharnais. By a statute of June 5, 1805, the Emperor added Viceroy of Italy to his titles.

Prince Eugène was adopted by Napoleon on 12 January, 1806; while excluded from the French empire's succession, he was given presumptive rights for him and his descendants in the male line to the throne of Italy in the absence of a second son of Napoleon on February 16, 1806, and hence on December 20, 1807 given the title of Prince de Venise ('Prince of Venice'), which had been instituted by article 9 of the decree of March 30, 1806 (when the former Austrian province of Venice was united to Bonaparte's kingdom of Italy) for the Heir Presumptive to Napoleon in Italy.

His stepfather also made him heir to the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt in 1810 and hence he technically succeeded as Grand Duke to Archbishop Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg, the Prince-Primate of the Confederation of the Rhine, upon the latter's abdication in 1813. This position, however, was purely theoretical, as Dalberg's abdication was due to his Grand Duchy's imminent conquest by the Allied armies.

A further imperial sinecure was archichancelier d'état de l'empire de France 'Archchancellor of the empire of France'.

Family

In 1806 Eugène had married Princess Augusta Amalia Ludovika Georgia of Bavaria (1788-1851), daughter of Maximilian I of Bavaria, and his royal father-in-law made him Duke of Leuchtenberg and gave him the administration of the Principality of Eichstätt on 14 November 1817.

Eugène's and Augusta's children were:

  1. Princess Josephine of Leuchtenberg (1807-1876) became the Queen Consort to King Oscar I of Sweden, himself the son of Napoleon's old love, Desirée Clary.
  2. Princess Eugénie Hortense Auguste de Beauharnais (1808-1847). Married Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.
  3. Prince Auguste Charles Eugène Napoléon de Beauharnais, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg, (1810 - 1835) married Queen Mary II of Portugal. There was no issue from this marriage
  4. Princess Amélie Auguste Eugénie Napoléone de Beauharnais, (July 31, 1812 - January 26, 1873) was the second wife of Peter I of Brazil (father of Mary II of Portugal) and became Empress of Brazil
  5. Princess Theodelinde Louise Eugénie Auguste Napoléone de Beauharnais (1814-1857). Married Wilhelm, 1st Duke of Urach.
  6. Princess Carolina Clotilde de Beauharnais (1816)
  7. Prince Maximilian Josèphe Eugène Auguste Napoléon de Beauharnais (1817-1852), married Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaievna of Russia, eldest daughter of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, and received the title of "Prince Romanovsky", addressed as "His Imperial Highness", in 1852.

Eugène de Beauharnais died on February 21, 1824 in Munich.

25mm Poland (France) : Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski 1763-1813

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting. 

Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski was born in Vienna, Austria in the Palais Kinsky (others say he was actually born in Warsaw), the son of Andrzej Poniatowski, brother of the last king of Poland Stanisław August Poniatowski and a field marshal in Austrian service. His mother was Theresia von Kinsky, a lady from the court of Maria Theresa and from the Czech-Austrian aristocratic family. His father died when Józef was 10, Stanisław August then became his guardian and the two enjoyed a close personal relationship that lasted for the duration of their common life span. Maria Theresa was a godmother of Józef's older sister, who was named Maria Teresa, after the Empress. Józef was born and raised in Vienna, but was also spending time with his mother in Prague and later with his uncle the king in Warsaw. Brought up in the "ancient regime" society, he early learned to be fluent in French (in fact that's how he talked with his mother), as well as in Polish and German. From the childhood years Prince Pepi (so called from the Czech diminutive form of Joseph) was trained for the military service, but also learned how to play keyboard instruments and had a portable one carried for him later even during military campaigns. It was because of Stanisław August's influence that Poniatowski chose to consider himself a Pole, even though he transferred to the Polish army only at the age of 26. In Vienna, he represented the Polish king at the funeral of Maria Theresa. In 1787 went with Stanisław August to Kaniov and Kiev, to meet with Catherine the Great.

Adopting for the rest of his life a military career, Poniatowski joined the Austrian imperial army where he was commissioned Lieutenant in 1780, in 1786/1788 promoted to Colonel and when Austria declared war against Turkey in 1788 became an aide to Emperor Joseph II. Poniatowski fought in that war and distinguished himself at the storming of Sabac on April 25, 1788, where he was seriously wounded. Reportedly at Sabac also he saved the life of a younger colleague, Prince Karl Philipp Schwarzenberg. Later their military paths crossed repeatedly, as allies or as foes, and at the end of Poniatowski's road Schwarzenberg came back to deliver the crushing blow at Leipzig.

Polish Army service; defense of May 3rd Constitution

Prince Józef Poniatowski.

Summoned by his uncle, King Stanisław August Poniatowski and the Sejm, when the Polish Army was reorganized, Poniatowski moved to Poland. The King had made previous arrangements with the Austrian authorities for such transfer, which of course in the end depended on his nephew's willingness to make the move, but this, despite the "sacrifice" involved on his part (career in the imperial army looked promising), turned out not to be a problem. In October 1789, together with Tadeusz Kościuszko and three others, Poniatowski received the rank of Major-General, was appointed commander of a division in the Ukraine and devoted himself zealously to the improvement of the small and for a long time neglected Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth's military.

It was the period of deliberations by the Four-Year Sejm, which ended with the proclamation of the May 3 Constitution in 1791. Poniatowski was an enthusiastic supporter of the reform and a member of the Friends of the Constitution Association. The passage of the document was assured partially by the military forces under the Prince's command, which surrounded the Royal Castle during the final proceedings; he himself was standing in the room with a group of soldiers.

On May 6, 1792 Poniatowski was appointed Lieutenant-General and commander of the Polish army in the Ukraine, with the task of defending the country against the imminent Russian attack. There Prince Józef, as he is affectionately referred to by the Poles, aided by Kościuszko and Michał Wielhorski, a friend from the Austrian service, displayed great ability. Badly outnumbered and outgunned by the enemy, obliged constantly to retreat, but disputing every point of vantage, he turned on the pursuer whenever he pressed too closely, and won several notable victories. The Battle of Zieleńce on June 18 was the first major victorious engagement of the Polish forces since Jan III Sobieski. Poniatowski personally got involved in the fighting when one of the Polish columns was faltering, as he had the habit of doing. Stanisław August marveled at the victory and to commemorate the occasion established the famous Virtuti Militari order, with which he decorated Poniatowski and Kościuszko first - unfortunately his enthusiasm did not last long. At the Battle of Dubienka fought by Kościuszko and his soldiers on July 18 the line of the Bug River was defended for five days against fourfold odds. Finally the undefeated Polish armies converged on Warsaw and were preparing for a general engagement, when a courier from the capital informed the Commander in Chief that King Stanisław August had acceded to the pro-Russian Targowica Confederation and had pledged the adherence of the Polish Army. All hostilities were therefore to be suspended. The army remaining loyal to Prince Józef, he was offered a coup d'état option that involved kidnapping of the King, but he, after issuing contradictory orders, decided finally not to do so. Distressed, at the last skirmish at Markuszew on July 26 was supposedly seeking death, but was saved. After an indignant but fruitless protest, Poniatowski and most of the other Polish generals resigned their commissions and, the King's pleading notwithstanding, left the army.

In a farewell gesture, Prince Józef's soldiers expressed their gratitude by having a memorial medal minted, and even writing to the Prince's mother in Prague, thanking her for such a great son. Poniatowski left Warsaw for Vienna, from where he repeatedly challenged the Targowica leader Szczęsny Potocki to a duel. But the Russian authorities wanted him removed from Poland even further, and the fearful king pressured him to comply, so he left Vienna to travel in western Europe, traumatized at that time by the violent events of the French Revolution.

In 1792 in a letter to the King Prince Józef expressed his opinion, that in order to save the country and preserve the great power of Poland, he should had, already at the outset of this campaign (since it was not properly prepared militarily) moved the whole country, led the nobility on a horse, armed the towns and given freedom to the peasants.

The Polish-Russian War was followed by the Second Partition of Poland. It gave rise to four decades of intense warfare aimed at preserving Poland's independence. It included several major wars (1792, 1794, 1807, 1809, 1812, 1813, 1830) and a great deal of other fighting. It ranged from San Domingo to Pomerania, and included Dąbrowski's Polish Legions, as well as famous exploits, such as Somosierra, Fuengirola, and Albuera.

Kościuszko Insurrection (1794); private life

Stanisław August Poniatowski wrote to his nephew in the spring of 1794, urging him to return to Poland and volunteer for service under his former subordinate Kościuszko, in the uprising which now bears his name. Possibly without much enthusiasm for the undertaking in which he had not been up to that point involved, Poniatowski came with Wielhorski again and reported for duty at Kościuszko's camp near Jędrzejów on May 27. Kościuszko proposed that Prince Józef leads the Insurrection in Lithuania, where he was demoting the radical and successful leader Jakub Jasiński, but Poniatowski, not wanting to be so far from his uncle, who needed him, declined. He suggested instead Wielhorski, which the Naczelnik accepted. He himself participated in combat in and around Warsaw - as a division commander fought at Błonie July 7 – July 10 and led cavalry in anti-Prussian diversion at Marymont July 26 – July 27. When during the Prussian siege of the city Mokronowski was sent to Lithuania to replace ailing Wielhorski, Poniatowski was given his post in Warsaw's defense parameter. There as always he fought valiantly. August 5 – August 10 in a victorious and promising series of confrontations he took from the Prussians the Góry Szwedzkie region, then lost it after a couple of weeks in a counterattack, for which, despite Kościuszko's warnings, he did't properly prepare. Trying to recover the lost ground was injured, when his horse was shot under him. In October he led his outnumbered troops in attacks against Prussian entrenchments at the Bzura River, which at the cost of heavy losses tied up the Prussians and saved Dąbrowski's corps, by allowing its return to Warsaw. During the course of this war and revolution the Prince felt alienated by the actions and influence of the radical wing led by Hugo Kołłątaj, while the military cooperation between him, Dąbrowski and Józef Zajączek was not what it should had been, and things had gotten worse after Kościuszko's capture at Maciejowice.

The Insurrection having failed, Poniatowski stayed for a while in Warsaw, his estates were confiscated, but having refused a position in the Russian army and unwilling to comply with the loyalty conditions that the Russian authorities wanted to impose on him, was ordered to leave the Polish capital and in April 1795 moved once more to Vienna. The Kościuszko Rising led to the Third (and final) Partition of Poland.

In 1796 died Catherine II and her son, tsar Paul I returned Poniatowski's estates and again tried to hire him in the Russian army. To excuse himself Prince Józef claimed being (as a result of past wounds) in an extremely poor health. But in 1798 died in St. Petersburg his uncle, the former king Stanisław August. Poniatowski left Vienna for his funeral and to arrange for the proper disposition of the late king's finances, inheritance and obligations. He stayed in St. Petersburg for several months, and then, being on good terms with Tsar Paul and his court, returned to Poland, into his estates in Warsaw (Pod Blachą and Łazienki palaces) and in Jabłonna. Warsaw at that time was under Prussian rule.

There until 1806 Poniatowski lived a private life of parties and play, politically not very active, often shocking the public opinion by the conduct of himself and his friends. His household was managed strictly by one Henrietta Vauban, an older woman whom he brought from Vienna and who was apparently able to exert a great deal of influence over the Prince. His residences were open to various personalities, and from 1801 the future Louis XVIII, brother of the executed by the Revolution Louis XVI, who with his family and court needed a place to stay, was Poniatowski's guest at the Łazienki Palace for a few years. In 1802, beset by legal troubles stemming from Stanisław August's succession, Poniatowski made a trip to Berlin, where he stayed for months and established cordial personal relations with the Prussian royal family. Prince Józef never married; had two sons with two of his unmarried partners, of which the last and most important was Zofia Czosnowska from the Potocki family, mother of his younger son Karol Józef Poniatowski.

Seal of Prince Józef as Minister of War of the Duchy of Warsaw.
Seal of Prince Józef as Minister of War of the Duchy of Warsaw.

Duchy of Warsaw; victory in Austro-Polish War (1809)

Józef Poniatowski on horse.
Józef Poniatowski on horse.

Following Napoleon Bonaparte's victory at the Battle of Jena and the ensuing evacuation by Prussia of her Polish provinces, in November 1806 Poniatowski was asked by the Prussian king Frederick William III to assume the governorship of Warsaw, to which he agreed; he also assumed the command of the city's municipal guard and citizen militia forces organized by local residents. All of this turned out to be a short-lived Polish provisional authority, because quick succession of events on the European scene presented the Poles with new opportunities and forced upon them new choices.

At the end of that year Joachim Murat and his forces entered Warsaw and Poniatowski had to define his role within this new political reality. It took protracted negotiations with Murat (they liked each other and quickly became friends) and persuasion by Józef Wybicki (who urged the Prince to get on board, before the window of historic opportunity closes), but before the year was over Poniatowski was declared by Murat to be "chief of the military force" and was leading the military department on behalf of the French authorities. Dąbrowski, who was the choice of many Polish veterans of the Polish Legions and of the Insurrection, as well as Zajączek were bypassed, even though they both had served under Napoleon when Poniatowski was inactive. On January 14, 1807 by the Emperor's decree the Warsaw Governing Commission was created under Stanisław Małachowski, and within this structure Poniatowski became officially Director of the Department of War and set about organizing the Polish army.

In July 1807 the Grand Duchy of Warsaw was created. In its government Poniatowski on October 7 became Minister of War and Head of Army of Warsaw County (minister wojny i naczelny wódz wojsk Ks. Warszawskiego), while Napoleon, not yet quite trusting him, left the supreme military command in Davout's hands until summer of 1808. Poniatowski officially became Commander in Chief on March 21, 1809.

The Minister of War became completely devoted to the creation and development of this new, ostentatiously Polish army. The Duchy's army existed and operated under most difficult circumstances and its success depended largely on the military and political skills of the chief commander. For example, it was severely underfunded and most of the military units were kept by Napoleon outside of the country, to be used in numerous campaigns, which is why Prince Józef had a rather small force at his disposal during the war of 1809.

In spring of 1809 Poniatowski led his army against an Austrian invasion under the Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este, in the war that was regarded by Austrian high command as a crucial element of their struggle with Napoleonic France. At the bloody Battle of Raszyn near Warsaw on April 19, where he personally led his men in an infantry bayonet charge (throughout his career he did a number of these), Polish forces under Poniatowski's command fought to a standstill an Austrian force twice their number. Afterwards however decided not to defend Warsaw and withdrew with his units to the east bank of the Vistula River, to the fortified Praga suburb, which the Austrians attacked, but were defeated at Grochowo on April 26. An Austrian division then crossed the Vistula again trying to pursue the Poles, but was routed on May 2 at Góra Kalwaria in a daring attack led by General Michał Sokolnicki. Ferdinand made a couple of attempts more, trying to establish a bridgehead on the other side of the Vistula, but those were defeated, which left the initiative in Poniatowski's hands. From there he quickly advanced south, staying close to the Vistula to control the situation and taking over large areas of Galicia, that is southern Poland that was controlled by Austria under the partitioning arrangement. On May 14 Lublin was taken, on the 18th fortified and vigorously defended Sandomierz. On the 20th the Zamość fortress was overpowered, where 2000 prisoners and 40 cannons were taken, and even further east Lvov was taken on May 27. These military developments compelled the Austrians to withdraw from Warsaw - a counteroffensive by their main force resulted in the retaking of Sandomierz on June 18.

But Poniatowski in the meantime moved west of the Vistula and on July 5, the day of the Battle of Wagram, began from Radom his new southbound offensive aimed at Kraków. He arrived there on July 15, and while the demoralized and not capable of effective defense Austrians tried to turn the city over to the Russians, Poniatowski at this point was not to be outmaneuvered or intimidated: Seeing a Russian hussar cavalry unit in attack formation blocking the street leading to the bridge on the Vistula, he rode his raised up horse into them, so that several flipped as they were falling.

Most of the liberated lands, with the exception of the Lvov region, became incorporated into the Duchy through the peace treaty of October 14, 1809. Prince Józef himself, celebrated by the residents of the old royal capital of Poland, remained in Kraków until the end of December, supervising the provisional Galician government in existence from June 2 to December 28. The Austrians kept demanding the return of Kraków and he felt that his presence there was the best assurance that the city remains in Polish hands.

Napoleon's Russian Campaign (1812)

In April 1811 Poniatowski went to Paris, where he represented the king of Saxony and duke of Warsaw Frederick Augustus I at the baptism ceremonies of Napoleon's son. He stayed there for four months and worked with the Emperor and his generals on plans for the campaign against Russia. He tried to convince the French leaders that the southern route, through the current day Ukraine would provide the most benefits. Not only was the region warmer, Polish gentry from the Russian partition would join in, and possible Turkish action against Russia could be supported, which was the most advantageous theater for the upcoming war. Napoleon rejected the idea, as well as the back-up scenario, according to which Poniatowski would follow such a route alone with the Polish corps, hoping to take over these formerly Polish areas with the expected help from a Polish uprising planned there. For the Moscow expedition Poniatowski became commander of the part of the nearly 100,000 strong Polish forces (the greatest Polish military effort before the 20th century), namely the V Corps of the Grande Armée.

The initial period of the offensive, when Poniatowski was placed under the direction of Jérôme Bonaparte, was wasted, but after Napoleon's brother left Poniatowski was briefly put in charge of Grande Armée's right wing. Fighting on the avant-garde on the advance to Moscow he distinguished himself at a number of battles. On August 17 at Smolensk he personally led his corps' assault on the city. On September 7 at Borodino the V Corps was involved in the daylong fight over the Utitza Mound, which was finally taken toward the evening, stormed by the entire corps led by Prince Józef again. On September 14 the Polish soldiers were the first ones to enter the Russian capital; by that time however Poniatowski, unlike Napoleon, was convinced that the campaign was doomed. The Polish corps fought then the battles at Chirikovo on September 29 and Vinkovo on October 18, where Poniatowski saved Murat from a complete defeat by Kutuzov's forces.

Rearguarding the retreat of the Grande Armée, Poniatowski was badly injured during the Viazma battle on October 29. He continued in active service for a few days, but on November 3 his condition forced him to give up his command. He then continued the westbound trip in a carriage with two wounded aides. At the Berezina crossing they barely avoided being captured by the Russians, but finally on December 12 arrived in Warsaw.

German Campaign (1813); death at Leipzig

Death of Poniatowski. Painting by January Suchodolski.
Death of Poniatowski. Painting by January Suchodolski.

After the disastrous retreat of Napoleon's army, while recovering from his injuries, Poniatowski quickly undertook the rebuilding of the Polish army, to replace the forces almost completely devastated as the result of the Moscow campaign. When many Polish leaders began to waver in their allegiance to the French Emperor, Poniatowski resisted this sway of opinion and remained faithful to him, even as tsar Alexander I was offering him amnesty and proposed future cooperation. With the formation of this new army only partially completed, on February 5, as the Russian army was about to enter Warsaw, the Polish units moved out, not sure of their immediate purpose, but eventually they reached Kraków, where they stayed for a few weeks getting ready for their final trial. On May 7, as the Russians were getting close again, Prince Józef and his army left Kraków, to go through Bohemia, where, as the VIII Corps, they guarded the passes of the Bohemian mountains and defended the left bank of the Elbe River, to Saxony. The total forces with which he joined Napoleon during armistice numbered 22,000, which included a small, separately operating Dąbrowski's division.

The corps fought major successful battles at Löbau on September 9, and at Zedtlitz on October 10, where General Pahlen attempted to stop their movement toward Leipzig, but was defeated in a cavalry charge led by Poniatowski. On October 12 he was about to sit down with Murat at the breakfast table, when they were surprised by enemy units. Poniatowski got on his horse, broke through (received a superficial wound in the arm) and returning with another timely cavalry charge saved the situation.

As a reward for his brilliant services, on October 16 during the Battle of Leipzig, Poniatowski was made a Marshal of France and entrusted with the dangerous duty of covering the French Army's retreat. He heroically defended Leipzig, losing half his corps in the attempt, finally falling back slowly upon a bridge over the Weisse Elster River, near Leipzig. In the general confusion, the French blew up the bridge before he could reach it. Contesting every step with the overwhelming forces of his pursuers, Prince Józef refused to surrender, and covered with wounds plunged into the river. There he died, probably shot by French troops' friendly fire from the opposite bank of the Elster River.

Death

His remains were transported to Poland in 1817 and buried in the cathedral on Kraków's Wawel Hill, where he lies beside Tadeusz Kościuszko and Jan III Sobieski. In 1829 his monument by Bertel Thorvaldsen was placed in Warsaw. It went through a rather turbulent history and was destroyed during World War II, but a more recent copy is still standing in front of the presidential palace in Warsaw. Poniatowski's cult developed after his death - it was a Polish version of the Napoleon's legend.

Although he never married he had however illegitimate issue.

30mm United States: Officer Artillery WW1 1914-1918

img_2579_000
  • Description

 

1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

30mm United States: Private (helmet) atacking with bajonet WW1 1914-1918

img_2584_000
  • Description

 

1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

30mm United States: Private throwing granade WW1 1914-1918

img_2580_000
  • Description

 

1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

30mm United States: Private WW1 1914-1918

  • Description

 

1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

30mm England: Highland Infantry Waterloo 1815 shooting

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

A Scottish regiment is any regiment (or similar military unit) that at some time in its history has or had a name that referred to Scotland or some part, thereof, and adopted items of Scottish dress. These regiments were and are usually a product of the British Empire, either directly serving the United Kingdom, serving as colonial troops, or later as part of Commonwealth country military establishments. Their "Scottishness" is not necessarily due to recruitment in Scotland nor any proportion of members of Scottish ancestry. Traditionally, Scottish regiments cultivate a reputation of exceptional fierceness in combat and are often given romantic portrayals in popular media. Within Scotland, itself, regiments of the Scottish Lowlands did not adopt as strong a "Scottish" (specifically Highland Scottish) character until the late Victorian Era

Many of these regiments are also known as "Highland regiments" or "Highland Scottish/Scot/Scots regiments" due to adopting Highland Scottish apparel. Many extant Highland regiments that are not in the armed forces of the United Kingdom have formed formal honorary affiliations with Highland regiments therein

 

30mm England: Highland Infantry Waterloo 1815 running

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

A Scottish regiment is any regiment (or similar military unit) that at some time in its history has or had a name that referred to Scotland or some part, thereof, and adopted items of Scottish dress. These regiments were and are usually a product of the British Empire, either directly serving the United Kingdom, serving as colonial troops, or later as part of Commonwealth country military establishments. Their "Scottishness" is not necessarily due to recruitment in Scotland nor any proportion of members of Scottish ancestry. Traditionally, Scottish regiments cultivate a reputation of exceptional fierceness in combat and are often given romantic portrayals in popular media. Within Scotland, itself, regiments of the Scottish Lowlands did not adopt as strong a "Scottish" (specifically Highland Scottish) character until the late Victorian Era

Many of these regiments are also known as "Highland regiments" or "Highland Scottish/Scot/Scots regiments" due to adopting Highland Scottish apparel. Many extant Highland regiments that are not in the armed forces of the United Kingdom have formed formal honorary affiliations with Highland regiments therein

 

30mm England: 95th Rifles Waterloo 1815

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1 soldier, hand painted by René in a acrylic dome.

Option;  marble console and sheet with regimental name or your personal message. Autopgraphed by myself with date of painting.

The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own) was a regiment of the British Army. The purpose of the regiment's formation was to work as skirmishers. The riflemen were trained to work in open order and be able to think for themselves. They were to operate in pairs and make best use of natural cover from which to harass the enemy with accurately aimed shots as opposed to releasing a mass volley, which was the orthodoxy of the day. The riflemen of the 95th were dressed in distinctive dark green uniforms, as opposed to the bright red coats of the British Line Infantry regiments. On top of this, the unit's operation was markedly different from the line infantry. Flogging was abolished as a means of enforcing military discipline (a very progressive move and unheard of for the times), they held regular shooting and sporting competitions, and were rewarded for their achievements. Officers would regularly dine with their men and in so doing would become familiar with each man in their respective companies, a practice also unheard of at the time.

The performance of the regiment can be demonstrated by the story of Rifleman Thomas Plunkett of the 1st Battalion, 95th Rifles. Plunkett, armed with a Baker rifle, allegedly shot the French General Colbert at a range of between 400 and 800 yards during the Peninsula War. Apparently, he then shot a second Frenchman who rode to the general's aid, proving that his was not just a lucky shot. By comparison, a standard issue Brown Bess musket could not be relied upon to hit a man-sized target at over 60 yards.